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Haematuria means “Blood in the Urine” and this may be either:

1. Microscopic, meaning the blood is not visible to the naked eye but detected on testing or visible under the microscope.
Microscopic Haematuria commonly occurs with Urinary tract infections, small kidney stones, and occasionally with small tumours of the urinary tract, (Bladder or Kidney).


2. Frank or Macroscopic, meaning that the blood is visible to the naked eye.
Frank Haematuria may be either painful and is often associated with urinary tract infections, inflammation of the Prostate and Bladder stones.

Painless Frank Haematuria is often associated with the passage of clots and is commonly seen with Bladder tumours (growths in the bladder - read about Bladder Cancer), Kidney tumours (growths in the Kidney) and following on from operations on the Bladder and Prostate.

All types of Haematuria should be investigated as to the type and cause of the bleeding, and can be carried out very simply in the outpatient department.

Standard investigations will include a full examination with a Flexible Cystoscopy and Ultrasound of the Bladder and Kidneys. Additionally a further X-ray such as an Intravenous Urogram (Dye examination of the Urinary Tract) may be needed.

The majority of Causes of Haematuria are Benign but early detection of Growths in the Bladder or Kidney allows for early curative treatment.

Haemospermia means Blood in the Seminal Fluid (ejaculate), and is a benign, self limiting condition often associated with inflammation of the Prostate.

Investigation is carried out in outpatients and includes a check on the Prostate, Measurement of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Ultrasound of the Prostate and a Flexible Cystoscopy. Treatment, if needed, is often with a combination of Antibiotics and Anti-inflammatory.

Haemospermia often settles spontaneously but if it follows a TRUS Biopsy of the Prostate may persist for up to 3 months.

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